The 'Lighter' Side Of The Force
the escape pod wasn't shot at cause they thought there were no life forms on board, now if they had shot it and destroyed it, then that would be against there mission to GET BACK the plans for the Death Star. C-3PO doesn't recognize Owen Lars, cause his memory was wiped, and Owen doesn't know him cause he is different looking then the last time he saw him. Anakin's force ghost is simple as well, Obi-Wan reached out to him right before death and taught him how to become one with the force, when that happens you appear as a force ghost from the last time he was a Jedi.
When Luke starts training with Yoda, it is actually months before he leaves to help his friends at Cloud City.
Quite a few plot holes in your plot holes in afraid. As said above Like started training well before his friends got captured on cloud city. R2s memory could also have been wiped, Ben saying like was their last hope....time taken to train, reaching out to her, explaining everything...too much hassle. Leo's remembering her mum....force impression for when in the womb. One droid looks like another, easy reason why Ben doesn't recognise them, Go back and learn your Star Wars lore